Топики по английскому языку

Legal forms of organisation

In business there are many legal forms of organization. The form of organization means the type of ownership. Three main types of ownership are the sole proprietorship, a partnership, and the corporation. A sole proprietorship is a business owned and operated by one person. The single person can start a business by simply purchasing the necessary goods and equipment and opening up shop. This person makes all decisions, takes all the risks and keeps all the profits of  the business. The owner must pay personal income taxes on his profits. The sole proprietor has the opportunity to be successful but he also runs the risk of financial ruin.

A partnership consists of two or more people who share the ownership of a business. In this form both owners make decision. They pay  only personal income taxes on their share of profits. A partnership usually has more capital than a sole proprietorship. The corporation is very different from both others forms of organization. Forming a corporation is not easy. There are many legal procedures to follow. The ownership of the corporation is divided into shares of stock. The stocks owners note for a board of directors who hire a president. The board of directors also decides what to do with corporation`s profits. The profits are taxed once as corporate profits and then the individual stock holders pay personal income taxes on their dividends. After all we see that the main differences between the types of ownership are in their ability to raise capital, the size and continuity of the enterprise, the disposition of the profits, etc. The current buzzword in working  world is flexibility. This has a number of related meanings. In case of flexible working personnel practices hot-desking and only need to come into the office occasionally. Another type of flexibility has existed for some time in the form of flextime or flextime where people can choose when they work within certain limits. The third type of flexibility is where employees are recruited on short contracts to work on specific project.

Organization of working hours

I consider that work for the person should be favorite/ So it is very important correctly organize working hours.
For example, SOL’s owner liisa Joronen says that she has thrown out traditional management styles. She had brought fun to the workplace in a nation noted for its engineering innovation. The companies name is from Spanish for sun. and its sun logo has a curved line turning if into a smile. The key words around SOL are freedom, trust, goals, responsibility, creativity, joy of working and lifelong learning.
You should restrict the creativeness of you employs. Peoples creativeness is restricted by routine and traditional office hours. To help staff towards independence of mind Liisa has abolished territorial space, such as individual offices and desks, and organized a communal area similar to a social club. It has a colorful playground with trees. Birds and small animals, a nursery, a billiard table, sofas modern art and kitchen corners . Staff is everywhere There is no a secretary in sight. The boss makes teas if everyone is on the phone to the field teams.
A flat structure of company is a thought sector  but it’s a flexibility make the work more successful.

Risk  investing .Financial disasters

Money makes the world go round, they say Perhaps it is even truer that the world makes money go round. Money is always looking for places where it will be most profitable and earn the greatest return on investment. As an individual, you can put your money an deposit in a bank . and as long as the bank doesn’t fail and the economy keeps functioning , you will get interest. If you want to live more dangerously you could buy some bonds, and as long as the organization or country  you’ve invested in by lending it money doesn’t default you will get your interest payment. To live more dangerously buy some shares and share in the profitability of your chosen company. But if you company run into trouble and goes bankrupt you can lose all you money.

This illustrates the trade off between risk and return The higher risk of your investment not being repaid, the more you will want if to pay back in return on investment. Venture capitalists will invest in many different starts-up, knowing that most will fail, but that a few will do reasonable well and one or two will, with luck, hit the lackpot. So there are many risk to invest money. Also there are financial disasters . But it is no wonder that money people are eager to make a quick profit. And they try to make their money work. For example the stock market crush in the USA in 1929, it was huge and led to a severe and lasting economic crisis in the world. Share prices had began rising in 1924 and in1928 and 1929 they rocketed to unreliable levels. People could buy stock for 10% of its value. The lending rate varied from 7% to 12%. Almost everyone was optimistic. It all ended on October 1929. The market opened badly and there was heavy selling. Confidence in the market disappeared. The boom was over. But its consequences would last for years to come. Some went to prison and others commit suicide.

In early 1990s there was a real boom ion the Russian financial market. Many companies emerged which offered a guaranteed interest of 100 per cent . The shares sold well and were a great success  But it couldn’t  last for long and these financial pyramid  didn’t produce anything. The companies declared they had gone bankrupt and were getting out of the market, many investors lost their money.


Companies should be ethical the whole issues of ethics is a very complex one, Companies a made up of people , multinationals a made up of different nationalities  . Companies are part of society and as such they should reflect society’s standards  Companies especially multinational ones, do have responsibilities in the world and should try to be a positive influence and I think if a company is not ethical, then it will not survive as a company.

All companies want to be perceived as good citizens. Different types of bossiness face different ethical issues:

  • Financial institutions try to prevent insider trading be erecting notional barriers called Chinese walls between different department.
  • Companies selling personal finance promises to ensue that clients are sold appropriate products are not tested on animals.

Company should have a code of ethics. Its useful on two counts. Firstly, it makes a commitment to certain good behavior and so it’s a way of communication   the importance of good behavior to all of it’s employees and partners. Secondly, if a company has a code of ethics and spends time communication it, it does actually contribute to it’s ethical standards and defined the term ethics can be a problem/ The code of ethics exclude unethical behavior on the work such as sexual harassment, bribe, whistle blowing.

Many companies claim that their company implements a policy of equal opportunities towards its employees. I admit that people are most of all recruit and promoted on the basis of merits and they are never discriminated against on the grounds of race. But I can’t say that women are never discriminated against on the grounds of gender. Their business  careers are usually less successful in comparison with those man. There is a sort of glass ceiling in their careers

International corruption

Corruption is a commonly defined as «the misuse of public power for private profit» In these sense, if involves behavior on the part of officials in the public sector, politicians or civil servants, policymakers or administrators, through which they improperly and unlawfully enrich themselves.

Whether persuading key officials to give authorizations to set up in business, grant government contracts, or just let your goods through customs,

Multinationals companies are headquarted in leading industrial countries. The try to organize subsidiaries in developing countries or in countries in transition. For expanding their business and increasing profits multinational companies massively offer bribes to officials in the Third World, persuading them  to sign over-priced contracts which are very often unprofitable for poor countries. If nobody fights corruption, such contracts increase impoverishment and decrease the level of education in these countries and divert money from development and health care of the population into expensive contracts. Awareness and publicity are the first steps to fighting and reducing corruption. The Berlin-based Transparency international private group studies corruption  on the base of international surveys.

The cleanest countries were Denmark, Finland. Sweden and the most corrupt countries are regarded as Nigeria, Bolivia, Colombia.

Russia is seen as slightly less corruption now then last years, but it still at the bottom at the ranking conducted by Transparency International  group. Russia tied with Tanzania, India, Zimbabwe for 71st place out of 102 countries included in the annual corruption Perception index.

The 9th of December is anti-corruption day. In countries rich and poor, in all regions and walks of life, diverse organization and individuals are unites in common cause: forcing the world to action against the corruption.


Investing 1000 of pounds in the recruitment and training of each new graduate recruit may be just the beginning. Choosing the wrong candidate may leave an organization paying for years. Few companies will have escaped all of the following failures: people who panic at the first sign of stress. Those with long. Impressive qualifications who seem incapable of learning and the unstable person later discovered to be a thief or worse.

Less dramatic, but just as much a problem, is the person who simply does not come up to expectation, who does not quite deliver. The first point to bear in mind at the recruitment stage is that people don’t change. Fundamentals remain much the same. Personal crises can effect the way we cope with things: we might take up or drop drink, drugs religion or relaxation techniques which can have pretty dramatic effects. Skills can be improved. People can be groomed for a job, they can be sent on training courses/ Better to select for what you actually see rather than attempt to change it.

When you go to interview you must know about key questions which regularly use in it. One of them: what do you like most and what do you like least about you present job. And others what you weaknesses are, and the interviewer can ask what you strengths are.

But you can escaped the failures. You can impress the interviewer with you preparation. First of all find out  about the job. You can get the latest press releases or annual report. Show the interest for the company and show the enthusiasm for the job/Find out what the dress code is. Finally your CV. It must be easy to read, concise-don’t ramble.


International trade it is a trade between the states and the country, it is a trade into international market/ It is not easy to break into international market today. On the one hand? International trade is developing very fast. In developing countries free trade is growing deregulation, open borders, low customs tariffs are its characteristic features. At the same time both developed and especially, developing countries practice protectionism especially for infant? Or for strategic industries/ Protectionism— the idea that a government should try to help an industries in its country by taxing foreign goods that compete with it, limiting the number that can be imported.

If you want break into international market, you should get prepared for it properly. First of all, you should carry out a through market survey. One must also comply with all export restrictions and regulations. If you want buyers to place orders with you, you should quote real prices and think over a system of discount. Think of the methods of payment it can be a LC, banker’s draft, bank transferee. Shipping terms are determined in Incoterms. And of course, much depends on you negotiation skills.

Free trade it is absence  of trading restrictions, liberalization of trade. There are no customs tariffs, customs procedure are simplified. Free trade is good but not for all, for the country-exporter free trade is good. Because it can make the goods without any problems. But for the country-importer free trade is bad, because people will buy import goods, and our country will lost there profits.

Topic 13

Every country specifies to be sold , stipulates terms of delivery and forms of payment. Shipping terms are determined in Incoterms.

One of the most common method of payment is irrevocable letter of credit. There are also other methods of payment- by banker’s draft, bank transferee. Forms of payment continue to develop with developing of world financial system and high technologies(e-banking) LC is the most common method of payment in foreign trade. Though it’s a bit more expansive than others.

The simplified scheme of how a LC works is as follows: the buyer applies to his bank for opening an irrevocable LC in favour of the Seller. The Seller then is called Beneficiary –the person in who’s favour the LC is granted, and who gets the money.

The Buyer can’t revoke the LC. The Buyer’s bank takes obligation to make payment to Seller, but only against shipping documents that confirm the shipment of the goods under the contract. For that the Buyer’s bank contacts  the correspondent bank in the country of the Seller. When the Seller ships goods, he submits the shipping document to the bank and get his money agains the documents. The bank sends the documents to the buyer, and he can obtain the delivery goods. The LC protects the interests of both the Seller and Buyers. It’s very safe method of payment.


Traditionally, a company’s new ideas & products come from it’s Research & Development department. Every company dealing with R&D of new ideas, beneficied which are established to stimulate employee’s creativity.

Different industries have different lead-time, the time between conception and product launch. In consumer goods, market research will be a key part of the development process, with focus groups, small groups representing cross-section of consumer talking about their reactions to proposed designs, and wider consumer survey.

Firstly the market research is carried out and the product is developed. Then a company applies to the authorities for a license and tests product. If the test prove to be a success a company launch product.

The ultimate nightmare is when a company has to recall product because of design defects.

Innovations more easily developed in start-up companies, but here the problem is finance. If is know that small companies invest more in research and development than big firms. They reed a large sum of money and solved theirs problems by setting up venture company in which one has idea, the other has money for the developing this idea.


The business world is not kind to pioneers. Even if you know how a market will develop. Timing is a matter of luck-or of quite exceptional skills.

Majority  of  people never heard of Berkey, Ampex, Gablinger or Chux. Each of this companies occupies an important place in the history of product innovations. Berkey produced the first hand-held electronic calculators, Ampex the first video recorders, Gablinger developed low-alcohol lager, Chux sold the first dispensable nappies. We don’t know about this companies because none of these companies made a commercial success of their innovations. Today we use calculators made by Casio, video recorder by Mitsushita, our low-alcohol bear is Miller Lite, our nappies made by Proctor&Gamble In each of this market innovators was swept out.

There are two closely related lessons. One is that being the first is not often important. The other is that innovations is rarely a source of competitive advantage on its own. Individuals & small companies can make a great deal of money out of good new ideas. The success of large established  corporations ( Matsushita, IBM, General Electric) is generally based on their depth of technical expertise, their marketing skills. These characteristics enable them to develop the innovative concept far more effectively than the innovators themselves. This is not to say that there is no role in business for the great innovator. GE was built on the creativity of T.Edison, the Ford motor company on the ability of its eponymous founder.

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